The Journal is included in Russian and International Library and Abstract Databases
Russain Science Index (Russia)
DOI Registration Agency (USA)
Scientific Indexing Services (USA)
CAS Source index (USA)
Web of Science Group (USA)

The distribution of clopidogrel in the organs of poisoned animals


L.S. Anosova Donetsk National Medical University, 16, Ilyich Pr., Donetsk 83003, Ukraine

Introduction. Clopidogrel is a representative of antiplatelet agents, which is effectively used in the combination treatment of cardiovascular diseases (acute coronary syndrome, ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, peripheral artery diseases, and others). In China, this drug is very often used for suicide. There have also been cases of clopidogrel poisoning in the treatment of COVID-19. The chemical and toxicological study of this drug is relevant in today's conditions. Objective: to investigate the distribution of clopidogrel in the organs of animals poisoned with this drug. Material and methods. The investigations were conducted on laboratory animals. TLC and extraction photometry were used as methods of analysis. Male rats were injected with a triple LD50 of clopidogrel bisulfate into the stomach. The test substance was extracted from the biomatrices of dead animals with diethyl ether and chloroform, eluted with chloroform-acetone (80:20) and ethanol-acetic acid-water (5:3:2) systems. The substance was identified by the Rf value (TLC). The analyte was quantitative determined using extraction photometry. Results. The largest amounts of the test substance were found in the liver (82.88±1.34 µg/g), intestines (54.43.6±1.97 µg/g), and urine (89.69±1.33 µg/g) of the animals. Conclusion. The findings suggest that for clinical laboratory studies, blood (serum) should be taken for analysis within the first three hours after taking clopidogrel. For the purposes of forensic chemical analysis in case of fatal poisoning with clopidogrel, it is recommended to send the stomach with the contents, intestines, liver, and urine for their examination.

clopidogrel carboxylic acid
body distribution
chemical and toxicological analysis

  1. Nijenh V.J. et al. Anticoagulation with or without Clopidogrel after Transcatheter Aortic-Valve Implantation. N. Engl. J. Med. 2020; 382 (18): 1696–707. DOI:
  2. Nairooz R. et al. Meta-analysis of clopidogrel pretreatment in acute coronary syndrome patients undergoing invasive strategy. International J. of Cardiology. 2017; 229 (15): 82–9.
  3. Capodanno D., Alberts M.J., Angiolillo D.J. Antithrombotic therapy for secondary prevention of atherothrombotic events in cerebrovascular disease. Nature Reviews Cardiology. 2016; 13: 609–22.
  4. Red'kіna Є.A., Tkachenko N.O., Gladishev V.V. Marketingovі doslіdzhennja ukraїns'kogo rinku antiagregantіv. Farmatsevtichnij zhurnal, 2016; 3-4: 12–15. [Red'kіna Є.A., Tkachenko N.O., Gladishev V.V. Marketing of antiplatelet agents in the Ukrainian market. Farmacevtichniu zhurnal. 2016; 3–4: 12–5 (in Ukrain)]
  5. Clarke’s analysis of drugs and poisons in pharmaceuticals, body fluids and postmortem material. 4th ed. (ed. by A.C. Moffat, M.D. Osselton, B. Widdop). London : The Pharm. Press, 2011; 2609.
  6. Lin G.-Q., You Q.-D., Cheng J.-F. Chiral drugs: chemistry and biological action. Hoboken: Wiley. 2011; 472.
  7. Metodika izmerenij massovoj kontsentratsii metil-(+)-(8)-al'fa-(o-hlorfenil)-6,7-digidrotieno [3,2-s] piridin-5(4N)-atsetata gidrosul'fat (klopidogrela gidrosul'fit) v vozduhe rabochej zony metodom spektrofotometrii. Metodicheskie ukazanija. MUK 4.1.3333-16. Moskva, 2016. [Elektronnoe izdanie]. Rezhim dostupa: (data obraschenija: 23.05.2021). [Methods for measuring the mass concentration of methyl – (+) – (8) -alpha- (o-chlorophenyl) -6,7-dihydrothieno [3,2-c] pyridine-5 (4N) -acetate hydrogen sulfate (clopidogrel hydrosulfite) in working area air by spectrophotometry. Methodical instructions. MUK 4.1.3333-16. Moscow, 2016. [Electronic resource]. Access mode: (circulation date 23.05.2021) (in Russian)]
  8. Wang Z.Y., Chen M., Zhu L.L. et al. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions with clopidogrel: updated review and risk management in combination therapy. Ther. Clin. Risk. Manag. 2015; 11: 449–67.
  9. Wolfe K.S., Kress J.P. Risk of procedural hemorrhage. Chest. 2016; 150: 237–46. DOI: 10.1016/j.chest.2016.01.023
  10. Al Asmar R., Zeid F. Acute Hemothorax Causing Hemorrhagic Shock Following Small-bore Thoracocentesis in a Patient on Clopidogrel: A Case Report and Literature Review. Cureus. 2020; 12 (3): 7431. DOI: 10.7759/cureus.7431
  11. Bondar V.S., Anosova L.S., Shovkova Z.V. Іdentifіkatsіja klopіdogrelju ta jogo metabolіtu za dopomogoju metodu tonkosharovoї hromatografії. Ukraїns'kij medichnij al'manah. 2013; 16 (1): 50–2. [Bondar V.S., Anosova L.S., Shovkova Z.V. Identification of clopidogrel to this metabolite using an additional method of fine spherical chromatography. Ukraїns'kiu medichniu al'manakh. 2013; 16 (1): 50–2 (in Ukrain).]
  12. Bondar V.S., Anosova L.S. Ekstraktsіjno-fotometrichne viznachennja klopіdogrelju. Ukraїns'kij medichnij al'manah, 2012; 15 (5): 43 – 44. [Bondar V.S., Anosova L.S. Extraction-photometric value of clopidogrel. Ukraїns'kiu medichniu al'manakh. 2012; 15 (5) 43–4 (in Ukrain)]
  13. Bondar V.S., Anosova L.S., Shovkova Z.V. Izolirovanie klopidogrela i ego metabolita iz biomateriala. Farmatsija Kazahstana, 2013; 7: 34 – 37. [Bondar V.S., Anosova L.S., Shovkova Z.V. Isolation of clopidogrel and its metabolite from biomaterial. Farmatsiya Kazakhstana. 2013; 7: 34–7 (in Russian)]
  14. Bondar V.S., Anosova L.S., Shovkova Z.V. Izolirovanie klopidogrela i ego metabolita iz biologicheskih zhidkostej. Farmatsija Kazahstana. 2013; 9: 59–60. [Bondar V.S., Anosova L.S., Shovkova Z.V. Isolation of clopidogrel and its metabolite from biological fluids. Farmatsiya Kazakhstana. 2013; 9: 59–60 (in Russian)]
  15. Patti G., Micieli G., Cimminiello C., Bolognese L. The Role of Clopidogrel in 2020: a Reappraisal. Cardiovasc. Ther. 2020. DOI: 10.1155/2020/8703627